A recent NY Times has an article about SOL Austin, an acronym for Solutions Oriented Living. This housing development is interesting for at least two reasons. First, the designs and materials are intended to be “sustainable” (whatever that means), but also “net zero” (which I gather means that it will produce all the energy consumed). The houses have solar panels and geothermal wells.
Second, however, it is interesting because it is in east Austin, the low-income part of town. In fact, a 1928 “city plan” decided that east Austin would be “designated African-American”. The 1962 construction of Interstate I-35 further divided east from west. The relatively flat east side of Austin had all the industrial blight, pollution, and low-income housing. In fact, it was quite cheap! The hilly west side of Austin had the fancy new upscale houses with views of the Hill Country.
One would think that the intellectual-academic, left-leaning, high-income households of west Austin might be more interested in sustainable housing that could go “off the grid.” Why then are these developers building super-energy-efficient houses in east Austin?
Well, for one thing, the 2010 census showed a 40% increase in east Austin’s white population and a drop in minority population. In correlated fashion, land prices in east Austin have risen considerably. In fact, a different article in the NY Times tells about a study based on the 2010 census finding that all residential segregation in U.S. cities has fallen significantly. Cities are more racially integrated than at any time since 1910. It finds that all-white enclaves “are effectively extinct”. Black urban ghettos are shrinking. “An influx of immigrants and the gentrification of black neighborhoods contributed to the change, the study said, but suburbanization by blacks was even more instrumental.”
Since I’m visiting here in Austin, Texas, it is easy enough to go see the new development. As you can see in the snapshot below, the houses have a modern box-like style. They range from 1,000 to 1,800 square feet. That explains the article’s reference to “matchbox” houses. But the roofs are sloped enough to hold photovoltaic arrays and to channel rainwater into barrels.
The developers said they wanted to “examine sustainability on a more holistic level, that would not just look at green buildings, but in our interest in affordability, in the economic and social components of sustainability as well.” As stated in the NY Times article, the developers “hammered out a plan with … the nonprofit Guadalupe Neighborhood Development Corporation, to sell 16 of the 40 homes to the organization. The group, in turn, sold eight of the houses at a subsidized rate to low-income buyers (who typically were able to buy a house valued at more than $200,000 for half price).” Each of those 16 subsidized homes has a photovoltaic array on the roof, though not necessarily large enough to produce all of the needed power for the house.
Of the “market-rate” houses, all sold at prices in the low $200,000’s. Eleven have been sold, and thirteen have yet to be built. Because of the financial and housing crisis, however, the “holistic” development ideas have not worked perfectly. Homeowners got rebates from Austin Energy and tax credits from the federal government. So far, however, only four market-rate house owners paid the extra $24,000 for photovoltaic arrays substantial enough to fully power a house. Only one is also heated and cooled by a geothermal well. But they all have thermally efficient windows, foam insulation, and Energy Star appliances.
So far, only one couple paid to install the geothermal well and the extra energy monitoring system: a systems engineer and a microbiologist. So, “sustainability” in low-income neighborhoods might still require some gentrification.